Prof. John FERRIS: Polish Intelligence and the Road to Ultra, 1925-45
Prof. John FERRIS

Prof. John FERRIS

Polish Intelligence and the Road to Ultra, 1925-45

The common view that Ultra shaved two years off the war is hard to sustain, but it did save the allies months in time and hundreds of thousands of lives. Britons and Poles can take pride in that achievement. Neither needs to exaggerate it

Mateusz MORAWIECKI: Independent Poland as the foundation of Western security
Mateusz MORAWIECKI

Mateusz MORAWIECKI

Independent Poland as the foundation of Western security

Poland celebrates its Independence Day on 11 November. On 10 November 1918, Józef Piłsudski, the man who contributed most to Poland’s liberation, arrived in Warsaw. The following day saw the end of the First World War. And yet for Poland this was just the beginning of its struggle.  

Karol NAWROCKI: Independence defended
Karol NAWROCKI

Karol NAWROCKI

Independence defended

“[…] there are no more occupiers. We’re our own masters and hosts,” rejoiced Warsaw politician and columnist Ignacy Baliński in November 1918. But Poland’s newly regained freedom still had to be defended against Russia – just as Ukraine does today.