Prof. John FERRIS
The common view that Ultra shaved two years off the war is hard to sustain, but it did save the allies months in time and hundreds of thousands of lives. Britons and Poles can take pride in that achievement. Neither needs to exaggerate it
Poland celebrates its Independence Day on 11 November. On 10 November 1918, Józef Piłsudski, the man who contributed most to Poland’s liberation, arrived in Warsaw. The following day saw the end of the First World War. And yet for Poland this was just the beginning of its struggle.
“[…] there are no more occupiers. We’re our own masters and hosts,” rejoiced Warsaw politician and columnist Ignacy Baliński in November 1918. But Poland’s newly regained freedom still had to be defended against Russia – just as Ukraine does today.
Prof. Piotr GLIŃSKI
It is no coincidence that we inaugurated the Empty Frames campaign in Polish museums right before the anniversary of the Soviet Union’s attack on Poland on 17 September 1939.
The effects of World War II – demographic, economic, infrastructural, scientific, educational and cultural – are felt by Poles until today.
The outbreak of the Second World War, which began on 1 September 1939 with the invasion of Poland by the Nazi Third Reich, is one of the events annually commemorated throughout Europe.