Michał KŁOSOWSKI: Třetí vlna solidarity
Michał KŁOSOWSKI

Michał KŁOSOWSKI

Třetí vlna solidarity

„Polské dějiny posledních dvou set let jsou neustálým bojem za svobodu a nezávislost, za právo na sebeurčení, tedy přesně za to, za co dnes bojují Ukrajinci,“ píše Michał KŁOSOWSKI.

Karol NAWROCKI: Tanks against “Solidarity”
Karol NAWROCKI

Karol NAWROCKI

Tanks against “Solidarity”

Forty years ago, FC Liverpool won the European Cup, Metallica was formed, and Robert de Niro collected an Oscar Award for his outstanding performance in the role of Jake LaMotta in Raging Bull. In Poland, 1981 was marked by another event: the communist regime declared a war against its own nation.

Jan ROKITA: Fake Coup
Jan ROKITA

Jan ROKITA

Fake Coup

For the Poles, those eight years started by the fake coup of 13 December, the darkest hours in the lives of the previous generation. Not only was it time of violence, full prisons, and assassinations, but also time of degraded quality of life and economic ruin.

Mateusz KRAWCZYK, Michał KŁOSOWSKI: We have solidarity in our genes
Mateusz M. KRAWCZYKMichał KŁOSOWSKI

Mateusz M. KRAWCZYK
Michał KŁOSOWSKI

We have solidarity in our genes

We know it from anecdotes, family keepsakes, and politicised stories. Wondering what it used to be, why our parents joined the cause, what it was that they criticised and why.

Professor Csaba György KISS: John Paul II gave you strength
Prof. Csaba György KISS

Prof. Csaba György KISS

John Paul II gave you strength

Communists put their knowledge of political craftsmanship to great use, while political amateurs prevailed on the side of the former anti-communist opposition. Already in 1994, post-communists returned to power in Hungary. In Poland, however, it was different.

Paweł JABŁOŃSKI: Solidarity – Poland’s international specialty
Paweł JABŁOŃSKI

Paweł JABŁOŃSKI

Solidarity – Poland’s international specialty

When the year 2020 began those six months ago, we were aware that the beginning of a new decade of the 21st century would be a time of both change and breakthrough. Renewed friction between global powers, a trade war between the two largest economies in the world, a debate on the new long-term budget of the European Union, activities aimed at the permanent presence of allied troops on NATO’s eastern flank – the Polish diplomacy was and still is…

Professor Aleksander SURDEJ: Who deceived the workers?
Prof. Aleksander SURDEJ

Prof. Aleksander SURDEJ

Who deceived the workers?

The changes initiated by “Solidarity” gave Poland 28 years of continuous economic growth and a significant, measurable increase in average prosperity.